**What is cryptography?**

Cryptography is about producing written or generated encryptions that allow information to be kept secret. Cryptography translates data into a format that is illegible for an illegal user, letting it be spread without unlawful entities decrypting it back into a legible format, thus affecting the data.

Cryptography is used by information security on numerous levels. One is unable to read the information without a key to decrypt it. The information upholds its integrity during transit and while being stowed. Cryptography is helpful in nonrepudiation, which means that the sender and the delivery of a message can be confirmed.

**Types of cryptography**

Cryptography is the skill of surreptitious writing with the aim of keeping the data clandestine. Cryptography is categorized into symmetric cryptography, asymmetric cryptography and hashing.

**Private Key****:**

Faster than the public key, in Private key, the same key is used for encryption and decryption. In this key is symmetric as the only key is copy or share by another party to decode the cipher text.

**Public Key****:**

In this, two keys are used: one is used for encryption and one is used for decryption. One key is used to encrypt the plain text to translate it into cipher text and another key is used by receiver to decode the cipher text to read the message.

**Cryptography Hash functions**

Enormously beneficial, cryptography hash functions appear in nearly all information security applications. It is a scientific function that translates a numerical input value into another compressed numerical value. The input to the hash function is of random length but output is permanently of fixed length. Hash functions are algorithms that, essentially, use no key. They are generally used to offer a numerical fingerprint of a file contents, often used to confirm that a hacker or virus has not intruded or changed the file. Many operating systems also commonly employ hash functions to encrypt passwords, which then provide a system to ensure the integrity of a file.

**5 Common Encryption Algorithms Used in Cryptography**

Encryption works to keep snooping eyes out of your business – even if they happen to in some way gain access to your network or system. The technology comes in numerous forms, with important size and strength usually being the major differences in one way or the other.

**1. Triple DES**

This algorithm was designed to replace the original Data Encryption Standard (DES) algorithm, which cybercriminals ultimately learned to beat with convenience. There was a time when Triple DES used to be recommended by experts, and was the most extensively used symmetric algorithm. Although it’s gradually getting obsolete, Triple DES is still a reliable hardware encryption solution in view of professionals.

**2. RSA**

A public-key encryption algorithm, RSA is the standard for encrypting data sent over the internet. Unlike Triple DES, RSA is thought to be an asymmetric algorithm because of its use of a couple of keys. The public key you’ve got is used to encrypt the message, and a private key to decrypt it. The outcome of RSA encryption is a vast consignment of jargon that takes hackers not adequate amount of time and processing power to disrupt.

**3. Blowfish**

This is yet another algorithm intended to replace Triple DES. This symmetric cipher breaks messages into blocks of 64 bits and encrypts them separately. Blowfish is renowned for both its wonderful speed and general efficiency with experts claiming that it it’s undefeatable. In the meantime, vendors have benefited from its free availability in the public domain. Blowfish is certainly one of the most flexible encryption methods available.

**4. Twofish**

A successor of Blowfish, Twofish is a creation of the same designer, Bruce Schneier, and it is symmetric, which again means the same key is used for enciphering and deciphering. The algorithm splits the message that needs encryption into 128-bit blocks and applies the key concurrently to all blocks. The difference between Blowfish and this one is of size. Unlike Blowfish, Twofish only uses keys for the encryption of data of up to 256 bits.

**5. AES**

AES is popular due to its easy application in hardware, as well as constrained environments. This algorithm is considered to be much better than its precursors, DES and 3DES, using a more multifaceted algorithm and a longer key. The decryption works quicker, making it an improved substitute for a cypher in routers, firewalls, security protocols.

**Conclusion**

There are many topics that have been discussed in detail with regard to cryptography. As compute power surges, intruders can go after bigger keys and local devices can process more intricate algorithms. Some of these problems include the size of public keys, the capacity to forge public key credentials, which hash function(s) to use, and the faith that we will have in arbitrary number generators. Cryptography is a predominantly exciting field because of the quantity of work that is, by need, done in secret. The irony is that privacy is not the key to the golly of a cryptographic algorithm. Irrespective of the scientific theory behind an algorithm, the best algorithms are well-tested and well-researched! In fact, any cryptographic system that remains in use permanently is most likely a good one. The strength of cryptography rests in the choice and management of the keys; attack will be resisted more effectively by longer keys than shorter keys.

The outcome to this is that customers should run, not walk, away from any product that uses a branded cryptography scheme, apparently because the algorithm’s confidentiality is an advantage. The thought that a cryptosystem should be safe even if everything about the system — excluding the key — is known by your rival has been a central principle of cryptography for well over 125 years.

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